See also the GLOSSARY of terms


Introduction: Contexts of sustainability

  • Dalibard, Jacques, 1990, “Heritage Begins at Home, What thinking globally and acting locally really means,” Canadian Heritage (Spring), 8-10.
  • Fairclough, Graham, 2009, “The cultural context of sustainability- Heritage and living,” Council of Europe, Heritage and Beyond 125-127.
  • Laduke, Winona, 1992, “Minobimaatisiiwin, The Good Life,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine.
  • Veerkamp, Anthony, 2009, “Slow Food,” “Slow Cities,” and their Lessons for Rural Preservation,” Forum Journal: Positioning Preservation in a Green World, (Winter 2009), 51-60.


International ideals: Sustainable Development Goals, World Heritage and Indigenous Rights

  • Labadi, Sophia, 2018, “Historical, theoretical and international considerations on culture, heritage and (sustainable) development,” 37-50, in Larsen, Peter Bille and William Logan, editors, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, New Directions in World Heritage Management. London: Routledge.
  • Turner, Michael, 2012. “World Heritage and Sustainable Development.” World Heritage 65, 8-15.
  • Disko, Stefan and Max Ooft, 2018, “The World Heritage and Sustainable Development Policy – A turning point for Indigenous peoples?”101-119, in Larsen and Logan, World Heritage and Sustainable Development.  


Bridging natural/cultural heritage conservation

  • Avrami, Erica, 2011, “Sustainability and the Built Environment: Forging a Role for Heritage Conservation,” Conservation Perspectives the GCI Newsletter, Heritage & Sustainability Issue 26.1: 4-9.
  • Byrne, Denis and Gro Birgit Ween. 2015. “Bridging Cultural and Natural Heritage.” pp.94-111. In Meskell, Global Heritage: A Reader. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Harmon, David, 2007, “A Bridge over the Chasm: Finding Ways to Achieve Integrated Natural and Cultural Heritage Conservation,” International Journal of Heritage Studies, 13. 4–5: 380–392.
  • Pollock-Ellwand, Nancy, 2011. “Common ground and shared frontiers in heritage conservation and sustainable development: partnerships, policies and perspectives.” International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 18.3, 236-242.

Indigenous, community- and land-based knowledge and stewardship / Introduction to the Métis people

  • Beckford, Clinton L., et al, 2010, “Aboriginal Environmental Wisdom, Stewardship, and Sustainability: Lessons from the Walpole First Nations, Ontario, Canada,” The Journal of Environmental Education 41.4, 239-248.
  • Hodgson-Smith, Kathy L., and Natalie Kermoal, 2015, “Community-Based Research and Métis Women’s Knowledge in Northwestern Saskatchewan, in Kermoal, Natalie, and Isabel Altamirano-Jiménez, ed., Living on the Land, Indigenous Women’s Understanding of Place, AU Press. 139-167.
  • Jojola, Ted. 2013.”Indigenous Planning Towards a Seven Generations Model.” pp.457-472. In Walker, Jojola, Natcher, eds. Reclaiming Indigenous Planning. McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  • Rose, Debora Bird. “Decolonizing the Discourse of Environmental Knowledge in Settler Societies.”pp.53-72. In Hawkins, Gay and Stephen Muecke, editors. 2003. Culture and Waste, The Creation and Destruction of Value. Rowman & Littlefield. 
  • Vowel, Chelsea. 2016. Who are the Métis? âpihtawikosisân: Law. Language. Culture.

Online resource through Carleton University Brightspace:

  • Horn-Miller, Kahente, Benny Michaud and Tony Belcourt, 2018. “Introduction to the Métis people and the Métis Nation.”  Collaborative Indigenous Learning Bundle, Carleton University.

Historic cities, suburbs and sustainable planning/regulation

  • Araoz, Gustavo F. 2011. “Preserving heritage places under a new paradigm.” Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 1.1, 55-60.
  • Bigio, Anthony Gad. 2015. “Historic Cities and Climate Change,” pp.113-125. In Bandarin, F. and R. van Oers, eds. Reconnecting the City: The Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Dagenais, M. 2019. “Imagining the City.” pp. 185-202. In Coates, C.M. and G. Wynn, eds. The Nature of Canada. UBC Press. 
  • Fowler, Edmund P., 2007, “Heritage in the ‘Burbs, How to make suburbs a lasting legacy,” in Alternatives, Canadian Environmental Ideas + Action 33.2-3.
  • Rodwell, Dennis, 2003, “Sustainability and the Holistic Approach to the Conservation of Historic Cities,” Journal of Architectural Conservation 9.1: 58-73.
  • Jessiman, Stacey R. 2015. “Challenges for implementing UNESCO’s Historic Urban Landscape Recommendations in Canada.” 80-92. In Labadi, Sophia and William Logan, ed. Urban Heritage, Development and Sustainability. Routledge.


Resilient and inclusive landscapes in changing climates

  • Crew, Rebecca, 2011, “Tree Preservation and the Cultural Effects of Climate Change,” in Longstreth, Richard, editor, Sustainability & Historic Preservation, Towards a Holistic View, Lanham, Maryland: University of Delaware Press, 43-56.
  • Megarry, Will, 2018, “Cultural heritage has a lot to teach us about climate change,” The Conversation, Oct.16, 2018.
  • Piper, L. 2019. “Climates of Our Times.” pp.319-334. In Coates, Colin M. and Graeme Wynn, editors. The Nature of Canada. UBC Press.
  • Ross, Susan, 2019, “Water works in a changing climate: the R.C. Harris filtration plant, Toronto, Canada,” International Council of Engineers- Engineering History and Heritage 172.3, 125–135.
  • Wiggins, Meredith, 2018, “Eroding Paradigms, Heritage in an Age of Climate Gentrification.” Change Over Time 8.1, 122-130.


Sustaining and assessing cultural heritage– resources for case study analysis

  • Clarkson, Linda, et al, 1992, “Calls to Actions,” Our Responsibility to the Seventh Generation, Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Development, International Institute for Sustainable Development. 77-92.
  • De Silva, Megan and Jane Henderson, 2011, “Sustainability in Conservation Practice,” Journal of the Institute of Conservation 34.1, 5-15.
  • Landorf, Chris, 2011, “Evaluating social sustainability in historic urban environments.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 17.5: 463-477.
  • Oldekorp, J.A., et al. 2015. “A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas.” Conservation Biology 30.1: 133-141.

Reuse and adaptation of the built environment

  • Boccardi, Giovanni. 2015. “From Mitigation to Adaptation: A New Heritage Paradigm for the Anthropocene.” pp.87-97. In Albert, Albert, Marie-Theres, editor. 2015. Perceptions of Sustainability in Heritage Studies. De Gruyter. E-book.
  • Carroon, Jean. “Buildings and Environmental Stewardship, Understanding the Issues.” Sustainable Preservation, Greening Existing Buidligs. Wiley, 2010. pp.3-18.
  • Lawrence, Roderick J. 2006, “Learning from the Vernacular, Basic Principles for Sustaining Human Habitats,” in Asquith, Lindsay, and Marcel Vellinga, eds. Vernacular Architecture in the Twenty-first Century: Theory, Education and Practice, London: Taylor & Francis, 110-127.
  • Latham, Laura. 2018. “The Rise of the Meanwhile Space: How Empty Properties are Finding Second Lives.” The Guardian. 

Rehabilitation of modern built heritage 

  • Elefante, Carl, 2012 (2007), “The Greenest Building Is…One That Is Already Built,” Forum Journal 21.4. 67-72.
  • McClelland, Michael, Alexis H. Cohen & Christine Paglialunga. 2017. “Towers: a comparison in evaluation, context, and conservation.” Journal of Architectural Conservation, 23:1-2, pp. 106-115, DOI: 10.1080/13556207.2017.1312762
  • Ross, Susan. 2021, “Addressing Climate Change by Retrofitting Canada’s Existing Buildings.” Policy Options. 
  • Ross, Susan, 2008, “How Green Was Canadian Modernism, How Sustainable will it be?” Docomomo Journal: Canada Modern 38: 67-72.
  • Webb, Amanda L. 2019. “Historic Preservation in a New Era of Building Energy Data.” 111-123. In Avrami, Erica, ed. Preservation and the New Data Landscape. Columbia University Press.


  • Brandt, Mark T./FPTMCC. 2016. Building Resilience. Practical Guidelines for the Sustainable Rehabilitation of Buildings in Canada.

Keeping heritage circulating

  • Bohlin, A. 2019. “‘It will Keep Circulating’: Loving and Letting Go of Things in Swedish Second-hand Markets.” Worldwide Waste: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2.1 Art. 3,1-11, Doi:
  • Lynch, Kevin. 1990. “The Waste of Place.” pp.81-117. Wasting Away. Sierra Club. 
  • Rudolf-Meier, Hans. 2011.”Spolia in Contemporary Architecture, Searching for Ornament and Place.” In Brilliant, R. and D. Kinney, editors. Reuse Value: Spolia and Appropriation in Art and Architecture from Constantine to Sherrie Levine. Routledge, 2011.
  • Ross, Susan. 2017. “Keyword-Deconstruction Waste (Building),” Discard Studies (Nov.27, 2017).


Models of inclusive environmental stewardship

  • Ball, Cynthia, et al, 2012, “Reconnection and Reconciliation in Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks: Jasper National Park, Canada,” in Amareswar Galla, editor, World Heritage: Benefits Beyond Borders, Cambridge, University Press/UNESCO, 158-168.
  • Mitchell, Nora J., and Brenda Barrett. 2015, “Heritage Values and Agricultural Landscapes: Towards a New Synthesis.” Landscape Research 40.6 (2015): 701-16. Web. 15 Aug. 2019
  • Reed, Maureen and Merle Massie. “What’s Left? Canadian Biosphere Reserves as Sustainability-in-Practice.” Journal of Canadian Studies 47.3 (2013): 200-225.

Social sustainability, environmental history and justice

  • Avrami, Erica et al. “Confronting Exclusion: Redefining the Intended Outcomes of Historic Preservation.” Change Over Time 8.1 (2018): 102-120.
  • Dean, Joanna, 2011, “The Social Production of a Canadian Urban Forest,” in Genevieve Massard-Guilbaud and Richard Rodger, Environmental and Social Justice in the City, Historical Perspectives, Cambridge: White Horse Press, 67-87.
  • Keeling, A. and J, Sandlos. 2019. “Never Just a Hole in the Ground.” pp.203-222. In Coates, Colin M. and Graeme Wynn, editors. The Nature of Canada. UBC Press.
  • Khalaf, Roha. “Cultural Heritage Reconstruction after Armed Conflict: Continuity, Change and Sustainability.” The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice (2019). 1-17. (Ahead of print pagination)
  • Simms, S. Jordan, “A Polluting Concept of Culture: Native Artefacts Contaminated with Toxic Preservatives,” International Journal of Heritage Studies 11.4 (September 2005): 327-339.

Economic sustainability, heritage tourism and walkability

  • Barthel-Bouchier, Diane L. 2013, “Cultural Tourism and the Discourse of Sustainability,” Cultural Heritage and the Challenge of Sustainability, Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press, 153-176. 
  • Dobson, Stephen, 2011 “Sustaining Place Through Community Walking Initiatives,” Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 1.2: 109-121.
  • Labadi, Sophia, and Peter G. Gould, 2015, “Sustainable Development: Heritage, Community, Economics.” 196-216. In Lynn Meskell, ed. Global Heritage: A Reader. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Rypkema, Donovan. 2015. “Devising Financial Tools for Urban Conservation,” pp.284-290. In Bandarin, F. and R. van Oers, eds. Reconnecting the City: The Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage.
  • Throsby, David, 2003, “Sustainability in the Conservation of the Built Environment: An Economist’s Perspective,” in Teutonico, .M. and Frank Matero, editors, Managing Change: Sustainable Approaches to the Conservation of the Built Environment, Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 3-9. 


Understanding heritage

  • Albert, Marie-Theres, Roland Bernecker and Britta Rudolff, editors, 2013, Understanding Heritage, Perspectives in Heritage Studies, De Gruyter.
  • Fairclough, Graham, et al, editor, 2008, The Heritage Reader, New York: Routledge.
  • Mieg, Harald A. and Heike Oeverman, editors, 2014, Industrial Heritage Transformed, Clash of Discourses, Routledge.
  • West, Susie, editor, 2010, Understanding Heritage in Practice, Manchester University Press.

Heritage conservation and sustainability

  • Barthel-Bouchier, Diane L. 2013, Cultural Heritage and the Challenge of Sustainability. Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press.
  • Galla, Amareswar, editor, 2012, World Heritage: Benefits Beyond Borders, Cambridge, University Press/UNESCO.
  • Longstreth, Richard, editor, 2011, Sustainability & Historic Preservation, Towards a Holistic View, Lanham, Maryland: University of Delaware Press.
  • Teutonico, Jeanne Marie and Frank Matero, 2003, Managing Change: Sustainable Approaches to the Conservation of the Built Environment, Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Young, Robert A., 2012, Stewardship of the Built Environment: Sustainability, Preservation, and Reuse, Island Press.

Historic urban landscapes and urban sustainability

  • Bandarin, Francesco and Ron van Oers, 2014, The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century, Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Hough, Michael, Cities & Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability, 2nd edition, Routledge, 2004. Electronic
  • Knox, Paul L. and Heike Mayer, 2013, Small Town Sustainability: Economic, Social, and Environmental Innovation, Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag.
  • Rodwell, Dennis, 2007, Conservation and Sustainability of Historic Cities, Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Whiston Spirn, Anne, 1984, The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design, Basic Books.

Cultural landscape histories and sustainability

  • Campbell, Claire, 2011, A Century of Parks Canada, 1911-2011, U.Calgary Press.
  • Longstreth, Richard W., editor, 2008, Cultural Landscapes: Balancing Nature and Heritage in Preservation Practice, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Luginbuhl, Yves, et al, editors, 2015, Landscape and Sustainable Development: The French Perspective, Ashgate.
  • Plieninger, Tobias, and Claudia Bieling, editors, 2012, Resilience and the Cultural Landscape, Understanding and Managing Change in Human-shaped Environments, Cambridge U.P.
  • Taylor, Ken and Jane L. Lennon, editors, 2012, Managing Cultural Landscapes, Routledge.
  • Taylor, Ken, et al, 2015, Conserving Cultural Landscapes: Challenges and New Directions, Routledge.
  • Von Droste, Bernd, et al, 1995, Cultural landscapes of universal value: components of a global strategy, Gustav Fischer/ UNESCO
  • Thayer, Robert L. 1994, Gray World, Green Heart: Technology, Nature, and Sustainable Landscape, Wiley.
  • Wilson, Alexander, 1991, The Culture of Nature, North American landscape from Disney to the Exxon Valdez, Between the Line.

Sustainable heritage buildings and materials

  • Carroon, Jean, 2010, Sustainable Preservation, Greening Existing Buildings, Wiley.
  • Gelfand, Lisa and Chris Duncan, 2012, Sustainable Renovation, Strategies for Commercial Building Systems and Envelope, Wiley.
  • Larsen, Knut Einar and Nils Marstein, 2000, The Conservation of Historic Timber Structures, An Ecological Approach, Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Maddex, Diane, editor, 1981, New Energy from Old Buildings, Washington: National Trust for Historic Preservation.
  • Oxley, Richard, 2003, Survey and Repair of Traditional Buildings, A Sustainable Approach, Donhead.
  • Prizeman, Oriel, 2015, Sustainable Building Conservation: Theory and Practice of responsive Design in the Heritage Environment, London: RIBA Publishing.
  • Rose, William B., 2005, Water in Buildings: An Architect’s Guide to Moisture and Mold, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Stein, Carl, 2010, Greening Modernism, Preservation, Sustainability and the Modern Movement, Norton.

Climate and resource-based architectural design, building, materials

  • Addis, Bill, 2006, Building with Reclaimed Components and Materials, A Design Handbook for Reuse and Recycling, London, UK: Earthscan.
  • Asquith, Lindsay, and Marcel Vellinga, eds. 2006, Vernacular Architecture in the Twenty-first Century: Theory, Education and Practice. London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Banham, Reyner, 1969, Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment, Chicago: U. Chicago Press.
  • Borasi, G. and M. Zardini, 2007, Sorry Out of Gas, Architecture’s Response to the 1973 Oil Crisis, Montreal: CCA.
  • Brand, Stewart, 1995, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built. Penguin Books: New York.
  • Fitch, J.M. and W. Bobenhausen, 1999, American Building: The Environmental Forces That Shape It, rev. edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Porteous, Colin, 2002, The New Eco-Architecture, Alternatives from the Modern Movement, SPON.
  • Steele, James, 2005, Ecological Architecture: A Critical History, London: Thames and Hudson.

Environmental history, cultural ecology, Indigenous ecological knowledge

  • Crumley, Carole L. editor, 1994, Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes, U. Washington Press.
  • Hawkins, Gay and Stephan Mueck, editors, 2003, Culture and Waste, The Creation and Destruction of Value, Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Hessing, Melody, Rebecca Raglon and Catriona Sandilands, editors, 2005, This Elusive Land: Women and the Canadian Environment, UBC Press.
  • Kermoal, Natalie, and Isabel Altamirano-Jiménez, editors, 2015, Living on the Land, Indigenous Women’s Understanding of Place, AU Press.
  • Massard-Guilbaud, Genevieve and Richard Rodger, editors, 2011, Environmental and Social Justice in the City, Historical Perspectives, Cambridge: White Horse Press.

 Other related references by Susan Ross, the course instructor

  • 2020. “Re-evaluating Heritage Waste: Sustaining Material Values through Deconstruction and Reuse” The Historic Environment: Policy and Practice.  DOI: 10.1080/17567505.2020.1723259
  • 2020. Heritage and Waste: Introduction. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 10.1. Access here:
  • 2017. “Sustainable Conservation Strategies for Canada’s Modernist Wood Legacy,” Journal of Architectural Conservation.
  • 2016. “Enhancing Conservation Tools for Natural Heritage in Historic Districts,” Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin.
  • 2013. “How Appropriate is Our Technological Heritage?” Carleton University School of Canadian Studies Heritage Conservation Symposium (proceedings), Carleton University.
  • 2012. Book Review: “Sustainable Renovation: Strategies for Commercial Building Systems and Envelope by Lisa Gelfand and Chris Duncan,” APT Bulletin 43.4, p.57.
  • 2008. “How Green was Canadian Modernism? How Sustainable Will it Be?” Docomomo International Journal, special Canada Modern issue (2008), pp.67-73.
  • 2008. “Sustainable Historic Places: A Background Paper for the Historic Places Branch, Parks Canada.”
  • 2006. “Saving Heritage is Key to Sustainable Development,” Heritage (Spring 2006).
  • 2005. “Integrating Environmental and Cultural Sustainability for Heritage Properties” (with Andrew Powter), APT Bulletin (2005), 36.4, pp.5-11.

Additional sources for sustainable heritage conservation case studies in Canada include:

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